6.8

## Lecture 5: Java Safari

There are a number of Java features we’ll use in this course that you likely haven’t seen or fully understood before. In this lecture we’ll introduce several of them.

### 1What the heck does static mean?

#### 1.1What is it?

In programming generally, static describes things that happen or are determined at compile time, and dynamic describes things that happen or are determined at run time. In object-oriented programming, and in Java in particular, static means that some member—a field, method, or nested class—is part of its class, whereas a non-static member is associated with every object of the class. Another way of saying this would be that static things are shared by all objects of the class, whereas each object gets its own unique instance of non-static things. (Note that a class and its static members is created at compile time, whereas objects are created dynamically.)

#### 1.2How do we use it?

Field, class, and method members of classes can be declared static. In each case the idea of being associated with the classes versus its instances must be interpreted slightly differently.

##### 1.2.1Static fields

An instance (non-static) field is a separate slot in each object of a class, whereas a static field has one slot for the whole class. For example, consider a class with one of each kind of field:

class Widget {
int widgetId;
static int widgetIdCounter = 3;
}

For each Widget w we create, there’s a separate w.widgetId variable. Whereas there is only one Widget.widgetIdCounter variable, which we refer to as a member of the class Widget rather than a particular object w:

assertEquals( 3, Widget.widgetIdCounter );

Widget one = new Widget();
one.widgetId = 1;

Widget two = new Widget();
two.widgetId = 2;

assertEquals( 1, one.widgetId );
assertEquals( 2, two.widgetId );
assertEquals( 3, Widget.widgetIdCounter );

one.widgetId = 11;
two.widgetId = 12;
Widget.widgetIdCounter = 13;

assertEquals( 11, one.widgetId );
assertEquals( 12, two.widgetId );
assertEquals( 13, Widget.widgetIdCounter );

In a sense, static fields are Java’s version of global variables, and like globals, they should be used sparingly. Public, static, non-final fields warrant extra suspicion.

##### 1.2.2Static methods

Unlike dynamic methods, static methods do not require an instance of a class to operate on; as with static fields, the method is treated as a member of the class. For example:

class Widget {
public void getWidgetId() { return widgetId; }
int widgetId;

public static void resetWidgetIdCounter() { widgetIdCounter = 0; }
static int widgetIdCounter = 3;
}

Note that it would be a static (compile-time) error for resetWidgetIdCounter to refer to widgetId, because widgetId is a non-static field, and static methods don’t operate on an individual instance. In order to call non-static method getWidgetId(), we need an instance of the widget class to call it on, because a non-static method can use the non-static fields of the object:

assertEquals( 11, one.getWidgetId() );
assertEquals( 12, two.getWidgetId() );

But static methods are called on the class rather than an instance, and thus don’t have an instance (this) to work on:

assertEquals( 13, Widget.getWidgetId() );

##### 1.2.3Static classes

When a nested class is static, it behaves like an ordinary class, just nested in its enclosing classes namespace.1We defer discussion of non-static nested classes for now. If Nested is a static member of Outer, then we refer to it as Outer.Nested when writing code that’s outside of Outer. Furthermore, nested classes share the same private scope with their enclosing class. Thus, Outer can see all of Outer.Nested’s private members, and Outer.Nested can see all of Outer’s private members.

As an example, rather than use a static field widgetIdCounter to generate widget IDs, we can manage the counter in a factory object:

class Widget {
private Widget(...) { ... }

public static Factory factory() {
return new Factory();
}

public static class Factory {
public Factory() { ... }

public Widget create(...) {
...
++widgetIdCounter;
...
}
private int widgetIdCounter;
}
}

In order to create Widgets, we first must create a Widget.Factory, which instantiates its own counter. Then we can use the factory to create Widget objects numbered using that factory’s counter:

Widget.Factory factObj = Widget.factory();

Widget w1 = factObj.create();
Widget w2 = factObj.create();

An advantage to this approach is that now we can create multiple independent factories, perhaps to work with multiple concurrent versions of some client system. Of course, if we actually want only one global numbering, then we can apply the singleton pattern.

#### 1.3When should we use static?

Use a static field when you want on variable for the whole class rather than one per object. Sometimes a class with do this privately to cache some kind of information or to keep track of some information about its instances, but for the most part static fields are rare except for constants. A constant should be a public static final field whose contents are immutable, and its name should be in all caps.

Use a static method when you want to associate some method with a class that doesn’t depend on having an instance. The most common case for static methods are static factory methods, which produce objects of a class (and don’t require that we already have an object to do so). It’s also common to factor out implementation functionality into private static helper methods.

Use a static class when you want a helper class that’s strongly associated with the enclosing class, especially when the helper doesn’t make sense on its own. Nesting a helper class also allows the outer class to see its private members and vice versa, which can be helpful when the two classes are tightly coupled. For example, it makes sense to nest a class implementing an iterator for a collection class inside the collection class, because the iterator probably doesn’t make sense without the collection class, and it is often useful for the iterator to be able to see into the collection objects.

### 2Arrays

#### 2.1What are they?

In Java, an array of type τ[] (where τ is any Java type) is a mutable, fixed-length, constant-time–indexed sequence of values of type τ. Let’s unpack that, from back to front:

• A sequence means that we have some number of things with a defined order (unlike a set, which has no order).

• Constant-time–indexed means that we can get (or set) any element of an array identified by its index (position) in the array, and how long it takes does not depend on the position or the size of the array.2When the array gets very large, this may not be entirely true due to practical memory considerations.

• Fixed-length means that once an array is created, its length never changes.

• Mutable means that the contents of the array—the elements—can be changed at will. Thus, they can change in content but not in length.

#### 2.2How can we use them?

To create a new array, use the special array form of the new operator, which comes in two main variants:

• A new, fully initialized array new int[] {2, 4, 6, 8} contains exactly the elements listed, which also determine its length.

• A new, uninitialized array new int[64] has the given size and is filled with the default value for its element type. For numeric types like int and double the default is zero, and for object types the default is null.

As a special case, when used to initialize a variable as part of its declaration everything before the curly braces can be omitted:

int[] intArray = {2, 4, 6, 8};

The main operation on arrays is indexing, for both observing and updating the array. It’s also common to find out the length of an array using its length field.

assertEquals(4, intArray[1]);
assertEquals(8, intArray[3]);

intArray[3] = 17;

assertEquals(17, intArray[3]);

assertEquals(4, intArray.length);

The class Arrays (doc) provides a large number of static methods for working with arrays, such as searching, sorting, filling, and copying. It also provides a method for turning an array of any type T into a List (doc) of T: <T> List<T> asList(T... a).3Note that List is an interface, and the venerable ArrayList is one class that implements it. Ah, but what does that T... mean? It’s a special form of array. Read on...

##### 2.2.1Varargs

Suppose we want a method that takes an arbitrary number of strings. Of course arrays are good for this, since they represent arbitrary length sequences:

void setPlayers(String[] newPlayers);

However, passing an array is ugly and inconvenient when in the common case we don’t have an array already and want to list the elements directly in the method call:

setPlayers(new String[] {"Crosby", "Stills", "Nash", "Young"});

Instead, Java provides a way to declare a method that takes a variable number of arguments:

void setPlayers(String... newPlayers);

The ... parameter always comes last in the argument list, though there may be a number of ordinary parameters that come before it.

Now when we call the method, it looks like it takes a variable number of string arguments:

setPlayers("Crosby", "Stills", "Nash", "Young");

Within the method, parameter newPlayers is an array just like before:

void setPlayers(String... newPlayers) {
for (String player : newPlayers) {
}
}

If we already have an array ready to go, we can pass it directly:

setPlayers(someArrayOfStrings);

Whether we pass an existing array or use the varargs method call syntax, the callee receives an array.

##### 2.2.2Array gotchas

An array is represented as a reference to a chunk of memory, and the value of the array, so far as Java is concerned, is the reference itself, not the chunk of memory. This means that re-assigning or passing an array results in aliasing, having more than one name for the same thing:

int[] anotherArray = intArray;
anotherArray[0] = -9;
assertEquals(-9, intArray[0]);

Not only does == for arrays compare references rather than contents, but equals(Object) does as well. This means, for example, that this JUnit test will fail:

assertEquals(new int[] {3, 6}, new int[] {3, 6}); // fails!

Yes, the arrays have the same contents, but not the same physical identity. To test for equality on the contents of two arrays, use assertArrayEquals:

assertArrayEquals(new int[] {3, 6}, new int[] {3, 6});

In order to compare arrays by their values yourself, you should use the Arrays.equals(Object[], Object[]) method, which compares the elements of the arrays using their equals(Object) methods. Of course, if the contents of the arrays you are comparing are in turn arrays, those will each be compared by physical identity. If you have several layers of nested arrays and want to compare by the contents all the way down, use Arrays.deepEquals(Object[], Object[]). (Note that these methods can take Object[]s because in Java every array type is a subtype of Object[]. This design choice is actually a big problem, but we won’t get into it right now.)

#### 2.3When should we use them?

Mainly, you will use arrays because various existing APIs require them.

You can use an array when you want a sequence of values that you can look up and update efficiently, addressed by their positions in the sequence. However, if the length of the sequence needs to change, you probably want to use a List instead (e.g., ArrayList or LinkedList). You can simulate a variable-length array by allocating new arrays and copying the elements over as needed, and this is in fact how ArrayList works (though there are some subtleties to avoiding a large number of inefficient copies).

Since Lists can do everything that arrays can, why would we ever use an array? One reason would be if you know the length that you need up front, and you want to guarantee that you can never accidentally change it. Another reason is for efficiency, since higher-level sequences such as ArrayList build on top of arrays with additional checking and indirection. For example ArrayList provides the convenience of adding an arbitrary number of items to it, at the cost of some wasted space. This is usually not a concern. But if you are developing a program that must optimize its usage of memory or must be especially efficient in time (e.g. writing a device driver, writing a program for a special device with limited resources), using an array may give you greater control over usage of resources.

### 3Characters

#### 3.1What are they?

The character type, char, represents single graphemes or symbols for writing text. This includes letters ('a', 'b', 'A', 'B', 'α', 'β', etc.), digits ('0', '1', '١', '٢', etc.), punctuation ('.', '-', '«', etc.), and whitespace (' ', '\n', '\t', '\v', etc.).

#### 3.2How can we use them?

The Character class provides, among other things, static methods for working with characters, such as tests for character categories:

assertTrue(Character.isLetter('a'));
assertTrue(Character.isLetter('β'));
assertFalse(Character.isLetter('8'));

assertFalse(Character.isLowercase('Z'));
assertTrue(Character.isLowercase('z'));

Strings are sequences of characters, and the Java String class provides methods for working with them as such. The method charAt(int) lets us treat a string as an (immutable) array by allowing us to look up characters by position:

assertEquals('a' , "abcde".charAt(0));
assertEquals('c' , "abcde".charAt(2));

Additionally, we can search for characters in strings4There’s a twist, though: some methods, such as String.indexOf(int), take “characters” represented as type int rather than type char, because it turns out that the Java char type doesn’t have enough bits to represent every Unicode code point. However, because chars are implicitly converted to ints, you can use a character where an integer is expected with no trouble. (In the other direction it requires a cast, which is lossy because some int values don’t fit in char), and convert between strings and arrays of characters:

assertEquals(0, "abcde".indexOf('a'));
assertEquals(2, "abcde".indexOf('c'));
assertEquals(-1, "abcde".indexOf('f'));

char[] abc = {'a', 'b', 'c'};
assertArrayEquals(abc, "abc".toCharArray());
assertEquals("abc", String.valueOf(abc));

#### 3.3When should we use them?

Characters are really for only two things:

• For processing a String character by character to query, transform, decompose, or construct it incremementally. For example, if we want to split a sentence up into individual words, then processing it character-by-character lets us find the word boundaries and whitespace in between.

• For representing text-like values that are always exactly one character long. This is fairly rare, but one place it often shows up is representing keystrokes in GUIs, which actually doesn’t work very well. (Why?)

### 4Primitive types versus reference types

#### 4.1What are they?

Java makes a distinction between primitive types and reference (or pointer) types. Understanding this distinction will make a variety of other features and quirks of Java make sense. Let’s consider what Java variables really mean.5Not just variables, because everything below applies to method parameters and results as well. In this diagram, there are six variables, each of which is represented as a box in the left column that contains the variable’s value:

The first thing to notice about the six variables is that none has a compound value, composed of multiple components—each contains a single, simple value, which may be an immediate number, a reference to something else, or null.

Variables a and b contain values of primitive (meaning “built-in”) numeric types int (four bytes) and long (eight bytes); for each of these the value is directly in the variable, with no references to anything else. The prefix 0x on a number is the syntax in many programming languages, including Java, for hexadecimal integer literals; writing the numbers this way makes it clear how many bits each is represented with. Every bit in each of these types (and all primitive types) is part of the representation of the number, and there’s no room for a distinguished null bit pattern; hence, primitive types do not include null as a value.

The other four variables have reference types, of which there are two subdivisions, object types and array types. Variables c and d both have the object type Posn. (Assume a class with two int fields x and y.) Java variables cannot hold objects directly—objects are compound data structures—so instead they must hold a reference6What is a reference? Most likely it’s just the memory address of the object, like a pointer in C or C++—though there are optimizations that can make the situation less simple. to an object. Variable c contains a reference to a Posn object, so that, for example, c.x == 3. Note that the fields of an object are a kind of variable, which means that they, too, can hold only primitives or references, not actual objects. Variable d currently does not hold a reference, so its value is null, which is a distinguished value that indicates the absence of a reference.

Variables e and f have array types, which means that each hold a reference to an array (or null), not the array itself. Whereas e refers to an array of primitive int values, f refers to an array of Posn object references. Three of the four elements contain references to Posn objects, and the fourth contains null. Note that while there are only two Posn objects in the diagram, there are four Posn object references—multiple references can point to the same object. (This is aliasing as discussed in the array section above.)

The reasons why objects and arrays need to be accessed via references is that their types do not determine how much space they take up. In particular, an array type int[] does not determine the length of the array, and object type Posn could include subclasses with additional fields.

##### 4.1.1All the primitive types

In total, Java has eight primitive types that can be the immediate values of variables:

 Type Size Description Range boolean 1 bit truth value true or false byte 8 bits signed integer $$-2^7$$ to $$2^7 - 1$$ short 16 bits signed integer $$-2^{15}$$ to $$2^{15} - 1$$ char 16 bits Unicode character $$0$$ to $$2^{16} - 1$$ int 32 bits signed integer $$-2^{31}$$ to $$2^{31} - 1$$ float 32 bits floating point number complicated, see here long 64 bits signed integer $$-2^{63}$$ to $$2^{63} - 1$$ double 64 bits floating point number complicated, see here

These have different sizes, which means that variables have different sizes. But each one has a known size, and each is a single value rather than some combination of values.

##### 4.1.2Boxed types

Every primitive type in Java has a corresponding object type: int has Integer (doc), char has Character (doc), double has Double (doc), and so on. (Only Integer and Character have names that differ in more than their capitalization from their primitive counterparts; the other six are the same except for the capitalized first letter.)

In each case, the uppercase object type is a class with a field containing the corresponding lowercase primitive type. For example, let’s compare the short primitive type with the Short object type:

Variable g of type short contains a short value directly. Compare this to variable h of type Short, which contains a reference to a Short object that has a field containing its value. Variable i also has type Short, but instead of containing a reference to an object, it contains null. Note that short cannot be null but Short can, double cannot be null but Double can, and so on for the other six boxed types.

Variable j contains a reference to any array of primitive short values, which are stored directly in the array. Variable k is reference to an array of Shorts, that is, an array of object references.

Note that these types are boxed because each is a reference to a box (object) containing the primitive type. For the most part, you shouldn’t have to convert between primitive types and their object versions, because Java automatically inserts box and unbox operations where needed.

#### 4.2How can we use them?

You have been, and for the most part you know how. But there’s one thing worth knowing about that you may not: How to perform Object operations such as equality and hashing.

### 5Equality: physical and logical

Equality seems like such a simple proposition: two things are either “the same” or they aren’t. Except of course the preceding sentence has two key terms left undefined: “things” and “sameness”. Now that we have a clearer picture of the difference between reference types and value types, there are clearly two different kinds of things: things that contain an arrow, or things that don’t. We therefore have to refine our notion of sameness: For value types, there’s really only one thing to be done: compare the values themselves and see if they are equal. But for references:

• We can see if the arrows point to exactly the same place. This check is what the == operator performs.

• We can “follow the arrows” and recursively compare the data they refer to for sameness.

The first one checks “physical” equality (do these two things refer to the same object?) and the second one checks “logical” equality (do these two things refer to objects that are equivalent to each other, even though they may be physically different objects?).

In Fundies 2, we called these notions “intensional” and “extensional” equality. They mean the same thing as “physical” and “logical” equality, except we didn’t need to know exactly how references worked in order to define them!

How can we check and define equality between objects? Java defines the boolean equals(Object other) method, on the Object class, so that any two objects can be compared. By default, this operation is defined as

boolean equals(Object that) { return this == that; }

so that the default operation is simply intensional, physical equality. However we are free to override this method on our own classes, so that instances of our classes can support logical equality instead. In order to do this, we first decide what it means for two objects to be “equal” to each other. Then we write the equals method accordingly.

In many cases logical equality of two objects involves checking some or all of their fields for equality. If these fields are themselves objects, we recursively check their equality using their equals methods, and so on. However logical equality can be more sophisticated than merely comparing fields for equality. Consider a Fraction class:

final class Fraction {
private final int num, den; // represents the number (num/den)
...
@Override
public boolean equals(Object obj) {
if (!(obj instanceof Fraction)) return false;
Fraction that = (Fraction)obj;

return this.num == that.num && this.den == that.den; // Oops!
}
}

assertEquals(new Fraction(1, 2), new Fraction(1, 2)); // good...
assertEquals(new Fraction(1, 2), new Fraction(2, 4)); // Fails!

There are multiple ways of representing the “same” fraction, so we need a more general equivalence:

@Override
public boolean equals(Object obj) {
if (!(obj instanceof Fraction)) return false;
Fraction that = (Fraction)obj;

return this.num * that.den == that.num * this.den;
}

Now both tests above pass.

#### 5.1Equality and autoboxing

Comparing an object to a primitive value seems like a silly thing to do: of course they can’t ever be equal, right? But in the presence of generics (see Generics below), Java will automatically box primitives into their boxed object forms. And at that point, looking for, say, an int in a List<Integer> makes a lot of sense. Accordingly, Java ensures that the equals method on box types coincides with the == operation on the primitive values: if any two values are ==, their boxed forms are equals():

long val_x1 = 7L;
long val_x2 = 7L;

Long box_x1 = 7L;
Long box_x2 = 7L;

assertTrue(val_x1 == val_x2); // primitive equality
assertTrue(box_x1.equals(box_x2)); // logical equality of boxes
assertTrue(box_x1.equals(val_x1)); // logical equality with auto-boxing

Unfortunately, the == operator will not perform the same way for box types as it does for primitives. Consider: there are a lot of 64-bit long numbers, so allocating an object for each one is exorbitantly expensive. So the following will occur:

Long x1 = 7L;
Long x2 = 7L;

Long y1 = 720_233_830_121_456L;
Long y2 = 720_233_830_121_456L;

assertTrue ( x1.equals(x2) ); // for small enough numbers, Java
assertTrue ( x1 == x2 ); // will ensure physical equality of boxed values

assertTrue ( y1.equals(y2) ); // but when they get large enough,
assertFalse( y1 == y2 ); // there is no such guarantee.
Similar caveats apply for other primitive types. This behavior is documented, though it might be confusing at first. Stick to equals() whenever possible, to avoid this confusion.

#### 5.2Equality and hashing

Equality is intended to mean that two variables “behave the same” in any scenario we care about. This implies that any equality implementation had better respect the following three rules:

• Reflexivity: x.equals(x), always. (Unless of course x is null, in which case this crashes. See the notes on null below...)

• Symmetry: if x.equals(y), then y.equals(x), always.

• Transitivity: if x.equals(y) and y.equals(z), then x.equals.(z), always.

(It should be apparent that == obeys these three rules too.)

Java includes one additional scenario in which we can observe objects: we can stick them inside hash tables, in which case Java relies on the int hashCode() method. Hashcodes have to obey the following consistency rules with respect to equality:

• Compatibility: If x.equals(y), then x.hashCode() == y.hashCode(). Contrapositively, if x.hashCode() != y.hashCode(), then !x.equals(y).

• Non-injectivity: Just because x.hashCode() == y.hashCode() doesn’t imply that x.equals(y). Contrapositively, just because !x.equals(y) doesn’t mean that x.hashCode() != y.hashCode().

In other words, the point of a hashcode is to quickly decide when two objects are not equal. If that quick check can’t tell them apart, then the full equals() method is needed.

Always override hashCode when you override equals, or you’re practically guaranteed to violate these rules.

As corollary of these rules, the hashCode() method should be a function of only the same fields that are used by equals() or else it’s trivial to violate compatibility. (Consider an implementation of Posn whose equals() method only checked its x-coordinate, but whose hashCode() method used its y-coordinate as well.)

Fortunately, Java provides several static methods to make constructing hash codes simple. In particular, each of the box types provides a static hashCode method, as shown here for doubles:

double val_x = 314.1592;
Double box_x = 314.1592;

assertTrue(box_x.hashCode() == Double.hashCode(val_x));

This takes care of most individual fields or variables. Additionally, there is a utility class named Objects that includes a convenience method

int hash(Object... args):

final class Posn {
private final int x, y;
...
@Override
public int hashCode() {
return Objects.hash(x, y); // boxes x and y to Integers,
// then gets their hashCode()s, and combines them into a single result
}
}

The actual mathematics of good hash functions are an interesting sub-domain of algorithms; for our purposes, it’s enough to know Java has good built-in defaults that we can use as needed.

Of course, if our particular equality operation is more sophisticated than simply comparing fields, then this hashing approach won’t work. In particular, if we used the same approach for Fraction as we just used for Posn,

assertEquals(new Fraction(1, 2).hashCode(),
new Fraction(2, 4).hashCode()); // Fails

We need a hashcode that respects our equality relation. (Try implementing this one!)

### 6A Nuanced View

In this section we review some programming practices that have been previously banned/shunned, but can be meaningful if used judiciously.

#### 6.1null is bad

Not entirely true. More accurately, null is a pain to deal with. null simply means “absence of an object”. Since there is no object, using a variable that is null to call any methods results in a NullPointerException. This is more likely to happen when null is used to signify something (instead of nothing as it is supposed to). A classic example of such usage is null to signal the end of a linked list. An implementation using a sentinel (a last bogus object that only means the end) avoids this pitfall. Thus in many cases the use of null can be avoided.

One of the few good use cases for null is when intending to create cyclic data. Here, use null to indicate that the cycle hasn’t been formed; document well by what point the cycle should be formed, and check for it early and fail quickly if an unexpected null value appears.

Nuanced advice: Use null only to mean “no object exists” and use sparingly only in this context.

#### 6.2== is bad

Not exactly. With our more sophisticated understanding of the distinction between value types and reference types, just remember that == compares the immediate contents of variables and so provides physical equality comparisons.

Nuanced advice: Use this operator sparingly, recalling how it works. For reference types, use equals in most contexts.

#### 6.3instanceof and casts are bad

The instanceof operator is used to determine if a given object has a specific type. This operator is overused to determine if the object can be used to call certain methods (in general, if the object has a specific functionality). This problem can be solved by designing the code better to exploit dynamic dispatch (letting the language determine which method to call, based on which object it has at runtime).

instanceof is useful in some specific situations, such as when overriding equals.

Nuanced advice: When you are contemplating determining the type of an object, think about whether you can avoid that by use of dynamic dispatch. Use instanceof only when you can justify that knowing the type of an object is critical to what you are doing.

### 7Enumerations

An enumeration is a finite collection of values, all of which are known statically, and can therefore be given names. Enums are most useful when the set of values is reasonably small, and when each value’s behavior is uniformly the same.

#### 7.1Simple enumerations

A simple enumeration looks like this:

enum TrafficLight { Red, Yellow, Green }

Under the covers, this actually defines a class named TrafficLight, a private constructor and three static fields. In other words, it’s effectively producing the following:

final class TrafficLight {
private TrafficLight() { }
public static final TrafficLight Red = new TrafficLight();
public static final TrafficLight Yellow = new TrafficLight();
public static final TrafficLight Green = new TrafficLight();
}

Because the constructor is private and the class is final, these three final fields are the only possible non-null values of this type. As a consequence, you can check which enum value you have using the == operator:

TrafficLight nextLight(TrafficLight cur) {
if (cur == TrafficLight.Red) {
return TrafficLight.Green;
} else if (cur == TrafficLight.Yellow) {
return TrafficLight.Red;
} else if (cur == TrafficLight.Green) {
return TrafficLight.Yellow;
} else {
}
}

Java allows you to use the switch statement for enums, so it would be more appropriate for the above code.

#### 7.2More elaborate enumerations

Sometimes we would like to associate other values with a given enumerated value. For example, we can refer to the coins in the US currency as “penny”, “nickel”, “dime” and “quarter”. But each of them also have a numeric monetary value (1, 5, 10, 25 respectively). What if we wanted to refer to them by name, but also perform arithmetic on their numeric values?

Java allows us to associate values with enums, as the code snippet below shows.

enum UsCoin {
// Define each named value, passing an argument into the constructor
Penny(1), Nickel(5), Dime(10), Quarter(25);
// semicolon is needed to separate the declarations above
// from the fields and methods below

// Define some fields:
private final int value;
// Define the constructor
UsCoin(int value) { this.value = value; }

// Define some methods
public int getCentsValue() { return this.value; }
@Override
public String toString() { return String.format("%d¢", this.value); }
}

We create a placeholder to store the numeric value associated with a given enum (private final int value). We take care to make it private because we do not want the association of an enum to its numeric value to change (e.g. a dime should always remain 10 cents). We would create an enum value the same way as before: UsCoin s = UsCoin.Dime;. However this results in Java employing the constructor above to associate the numeric value 10 with s. Because the constructor is strictly for internal use and never explicitly called when creating enums, we make it non-public. Since its numeric value is stored as an instance variable we can write methods that access it.

### 8The switch statement

Often we wish to check if a given variable has specific values, and take action according to them. We can do this by using if/else if...else statements. Java provides a more convenient statement for this purpose: the switch statement.

#### 8.1A simple switch statement

We can modify the implementation of the nextLight in the above section as follows:

TrafficLight nextLight(TrafficLight cur) {
switch(cur) {
case Red: return TrafficLight.Green;
case Yellow: return TrafficLight.Red;
case Green: return TrafficLight.Yellow;
default: throw new IllegalArgumentException("Bad traffic light");
}
}
The switch statement reads better in such cases. Because it is more brief than a sequence of if/else statements, it is often easier to debug.

A switch statement simply states that the value being examined falls into one of several mutually exclusive cases. Switch statements may only be used with enum values, primitive values (mainly chars and ints) and (as of Java 7) String values.

#### 8.2Fallthrough behavior

Warning: the cases of a switch statement have fallthrough behavior. The case statement determines the entry point into a switch statement, but not an exit point.

In the code below, the second case will match, and so will print "Got here"...

void badSwitchExample() {
switch("Oops") {
case "Won't happen":
System.out.println("doesn't run");
case "Oops":
System.out.println("Got here");
case "Yay":
System.out.println("Hooray");
default:
System.out.println("Huh?");
}
}
...and then continue to print "Hooray" and "Huh?". Although each case seems to “end” as another case begins, the code will continue executing. If we want the switch statement to end at the end of a case statement, we must explicitly do so using a break statement.
void goodSwitchExample() {
switch("Oops") {
case "Won't happen":
System.out.println("doesn't run");
break;
case "Oops":
System.out.println("Got here");
break;
case "Yay":
System.out.println("Hooray");
break;
default:
System.out.println("Huh?");
break;
}
}
The code above will only print "Got here". (The break statement is actually more general, and can be used to escape loops, if statements, etc., and essentially jump to the nearest closing brace. You cannot use break statements to escape from a method body, though; that remains an error.)

#### 8.3Default cases

Every switch statement must come with a default: case as its final case. This case is used when none of the other cases match the given value. For strings, characters and numbers, this makes sense: after all, there are a huge number of possible values for those types! For enums, it may seem weird, but remember that enum values are objects of a given class type, and null is unfortunately a potentially legal value of that type as well.

### 11JUnit

#### 11.1Review: the tester library

Coming from Fundies 2, you already are familiar with using the tester library to write test cases: something like

class ExamplesWhatever {
// various fields of data
int someData;
Foo aClassThatThrows;
void setupTestFixture() {
this.someData = 5;
this.aClassThatThrows = new Foo(5);
}
// old-style test method
boolean testSomething(Tester t) {
this.setupTestFixture();
return t.checkExpect(this.someData, 5, "Is it five?")
&& t.checkConstructorException(new IllegalArgumentException("No tens!"),
"Foo",
10)
&& t.checkException(new RuntimeException("Boom"), this.aClassThatThrows, "explode");
}
// new-style test method
void testSomething(Tester t) {
this.setupTestFixture();
t.checkExpect(this.someData, 5, "Is it five?");
t.checkConstructorException(new IllegalArgumentException("No tens!"),
"Foo",
10);
t.checkException(new RuntimeException("Boom"), this.aClassThatThrows, "explode");
}
}

A test class needs to accomplish several things:

• It must correctly reinitialize a test fixture to ensure every test runs in a consistent environment (especially when mutation is involved);

• It must be able to test whether some expression evaluates as expected;

• It must be able to check for exceptions that occur in constructing objects;

• And it must be able to check for exceptions that occur in method invocations.

The tester library in Fundies 2 provided a simplified API for such activities. In this course, we’ll introduce you to JUnit, the widely-used standard library for such things, and the support for it that’s built into IntelliJ. This isn’t quite a language feature—JUnit is still a library—but it is better integrated into the language and its tooling than the tester library was.

We translate the sample tests above into JUnit, then explain each feature:

import org.junit.*; // used to define @Test and @Before, etc.
import static org.junit.Assert.*; // used for assertEquals and assertTrue, etc.

class MyTestClass {
// various fields of data
int someData;
Foo aClassThatThrows;
@Before
void setupTestFixture() {
this.someData = 5;
this.aClassThatThrows = new Foo(5);
}

@Test
void simpleTest() {
assertEquals("Is it five"? 5, this.someData);
}
@Test(expected = IllegalArgumentException.class)
void constructorExceptionTest() {
new Foo(10);
}
@Test(expected = RuntimeException.class)
void methodExceptionTest() {
this.aClassThatThrows.explode();
}
}

#### 11.2Simple tests

The first thing to notice is the two import statements at the top; these are needed to define the assertions and annotations used by JUnit tests.

Second, JUnit does not impose any naming convention ("ExamplesBlah", "testWhatever"). Instead, we simply mark our test methods with the @Test attribute.

The analogue of t.checkExpect is simply assertEquals. Its arguments are in exactly the reversed order from the tester library’s order: first, an optional description of the test case, followed by the expected value of the test, and finally the actual value. (Technically, the first argument isn’t optional; rather, there are several overloaded assertEquals methods, of which only some include the description string.)

The assertEquals testing form compares its arguments using their .equals method. Keep this firmly in mind, as it is quite different from the tester library. That library provided a structural equality comparison by default, because we were using it before we’d defined how equality actually worked. Here, now that we know the distinctions between == and .equals, JUnit doesn’t impose any particular regimen on us; it’s up to us to define what we mean.

Among other things, look again at the notes about comparing arrays for equality above. Because arrays are not objects, they do not have a .equals method, so JUnit provides a customized assertArrayEquals method for comparing arrays for equality element-by-element, rather than by aliasing.

#### 11.3Test fixtures

Writing a test fixture is still our responsibility. However, rather than having to remember to call it manually in every test method, we simply mark the test fixture with @Before. JUnit will call it for us automatically before each @Test method.

#### 11.4Testing for exceptions

The tester library had some rather ungainly mechanisms for testing exceptions: we passed in the exact exception we expect, followed by either the name of the class or the object and the name of its method, followed by the arguments to be passed in to the constructor or the method. (We couldn’t explain at the time, but checkConstructorException and checkException both accepted a varargs list of arguments...) This was particularly annoying if there was a typo in the method name, or a type error in the parameters passed in, as there was no compile-time checking to let us know of our mistake.

JUnit has a much simpler mechanism. We elaborate the annotation before the method with the expected exception’s class:

@Test(expected = IllegalArgumentException.class)

and then simply invoke the constructor or method as normal. The JUnit framework will wrap every test method in a try-catch statement, and check that an exception is indeed thrown and that its class exactly matches the one specified. This means we need to get the exception exactly correct, no subclassing permitted here, but we don’t have to worry about the precise error message itself, and the same technique works for exceptions thrown both by constructors and by methods. JUnit has additional mechanisms for checking exceptions, but this is the simplest and easiest to use.

Note that this mechanism implies that testing will stop at the first exception thrown in each test method, because throwing exceptions short-circuits evaluation (much like how a single test failure short-circuited tests in the tester library, in the old-style boolean test methods). If you want to test multiple exceptions, you must write multiple test methods: one per exception. Or, you can write your own try-catch statements, and write an assertEquals in the catch block that examines the exception object...but this is error-prone to forgetting that if the catch blok doesn’t run then the test should have failed. The common case is simply to write multiple test methods.

(In hindsight, we can see why the tester library needed to be implemented the way it was: at the time, we didn’t have try-catch statements. Since the tester library was implemented entirely via methods on the Tester class, such methods would not have the ability to catch exceptions that were thrown during the evaluation of their arguments. Hence, we passed in the names of the things to be evaluated by the tester on our behalf, and internally it would use a try-catch statement to handle the exceptions. JUnit uses a different mechanism, namely method annotations, that allow it to effectively insert the try-catch statements around every method for us, leading to the cleaner API.)

1We defer discussion of non-static nested classes for now.

2When the array gets very large, this may not be entirely true due to practical memory considerations.

3Note that List is an interface, and the venerable ArrayList is one class that implements it.

4There’s a twist, though: some methods, such as String.indexOf(int), take “characters” represented as type int rather than type char, because it turns out that the Java char type doesn’t have enough bits to represent every Unicode code point. However, because chars are implicitly converted to ints, you can use a character where an integer is expected with no trouble. (In the other direction it requires a cast, which is lossy because some int values don’t fit in char)

5Not just variables, because everything below applies to method parameters and results as well.

6What is a reference? Most likely it’s just the memory address of the object, like a pointer in C or C++—though there are optimizations that can make the situation less simple.